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c.DIFF Low Pressure Diffusion Furnace


Leading-edge solar cell diffusion technology

c.DIFF is centrotherm‘s well-established and highly versatile diffusion platform for a stable emitter formation in high-performance solar cell processing. The reliable low-pressure system is deployed both in p-type and in n-type c-Si solar cell manufacturing.

Thanks to its broad and flexible process capability and performance, c.DIFF offers excellent and repeatable results regarding emitter homogeneity even at high sheet resistivities of 200 Ω/square. Unique advantages of the batch-type equipment are the flexibility towards varying production load and process sequence as well as the continued operation in case of single tube maintenance, shut-down or process optimization.

Depending on specific production requirements centrotherm provides various configurations, e.g. regarding operating pressure, capacity and automation level.

In addition to the established 5-tube version c.DIFF LP featuring maximum flexibility and multiple process capability, c.DIFF X has recently been launched to enhance production capacity. Equipped with 10 tubes and designed for wafer diameters up to 210 mm, c.DIFF X has particularly been developed for multi-GW producers of high-efficiency p-type solar cells.


  • High-efficiency solar cell processing
    • Exceptional emitter uniformities
    • Higher sheet resistance (250 Ω/square)
    • Next generation diffusion processes for advanced cell concepts, e.g. TopCon
    • Rapid change of gas atmosphere allows to establish new diffusion recipes and to fine-tune emitter profiles
  • Lowest cost of ownership
    • Minimized factory footprint by reducing number of tools at same capacity
    • Lower media and utility consumption
      (up to 50% POCl3 and up to 75% BBr3 savings)


    • Low pressure Phosphorus Diffusion (POCl3)
    • Low pressure Boron Diffusion (BBr3)
    • Optional AP Diffusion: POCl3, BBr3, BCl3
    • Wet and dry oxidation (optional: DCE, HCl)
    • Annealing (e.g. N2, H2)
    • Further processes upon request